Indirect Support

Livelihood and Natural Resource Management

In the project areas of Bakan District in Pursat Province, 36% of households are categorized as the “poorest,” and regularly have insufficient food for an average of 4.2 months per year. Another 34% of households belong to the category of “poor” people who normally have sufficient food, yet are vulnerable to food insecurity in years when there are natural disasters. Farming is the main occupation, with 86.6% cultivating an average of 1.8 hectares of land. The major constraints for improved agriculture and food security are low food production, low income from animal production, low income-generation opportunities, Limited access of local products to market:, Limited access to natural resources, Gender inequality, lack of sustainable community institutions and extension services and Limited capacity of CC and community committee leaders.

Under these conditions, people can become poorer, families can become destabilized, and communities can fall further into debt. Children can lose support from a parent, which leads to absenteeism at school and high drop-outs rates, and, in the worst cases, child exploitation. The result is an increase of child laborers and child prostitutes; increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; and higher numbers of street children, disabled children, criminals, drug addicts and infants and children affected by HIV/AIDS.

Contributing to achieve national strategic framework on poverty alleviation and addressing above these constraints, it project are focusing on four mainly intervention strategy to address above constraints through:
(i) Improving food productivity all year round of small-holder farmer through Farmer Field School, Integrated farming and demonstration agriculture plot, improved access to small –scale irrigation,

  1. Improving marketing of cash crop and vocational skill training for non-farm income generation, and community roads for access to markets.
  2. Increase sodality and sustainable community development.
  3. Increase transparency and accountability of service provider.
  4. Beside, PK effort to empower the member of Community based Organization (CBO), Farmer Field School, and Community based Saving Group, Rice Bank and On- Farm of target beneficiaries are able to manage community and families development processes, to obtain their rights for development and to make development sustainable livelihood.

    Project Approach

    • Livelihoods Conceptual Framework: This accomplishment will lead to re-established physical capital assets of village communities, and provide basic assets for income generation to vulnerable households to improve access to income and food.
    • Empowerment and participatory approaches.
    • Community based approach.
    • Gender and Right-based approach.


    Round I: Community Based Food Security Project from 2005-2007
    Round II: Initiative Rural Development from 2008 -2010

Good Governance

In the target provinces of Pursat, Battambang and Banteay Meanchey, there are consist three major issues concerned (i) vital records of people in remote areas are generally low especially among vulnerable children and poorest families due to lack of education on benefit from this registration. (ii) Limited the Citizen participation in the Community Investment Plan (CIP) in 2010. (iii) the good governance of water resource management at local level of canal and water reservoir rebuilt by local government one in Pursat (Damnak Om Bel’s Canal and another one in Banteay Meanchey province (Ta Meng’s Water Reservoir) is still limited. The most vulnerable groups in this area are still facing a shortage of water supply for rice cultivation due to the lack of information sharing with citizen regarding unlocking water gate schedule and lack of capacity of in resource mobilization and management for maintenance. And (iv) the Provincial Accountability Working Groups in three targeted provinces are not well functioning in term of their roles & responsibilities due to irregular bi-monthly meeting to follow up the progress and investigate the complained issues and Group members are also still lacking of skill and experience on investigation. Besides, citizen lack understanding of benefit in using accountabilities box and complaint mechanism.

The following project strategy will be use to address above problems in 11 selected Communes, five (5) Districts and Municipality, 3 Provinces of Pursat, Battambang and Banteay Meanchey in order to Increase transparency, accountability and openness dialogue of duty-bearers for effective service delivery.

  1. Empowered the citizens and civil society/local leader know their rights, social accountability, solve conflicts within their communities to actively participate in Commune Investment Plan and civil registration and give a constructive feedback to sub-national level.
  2. Empowered communities to obtain the sustainable and improved equitable access to water utilization.
  3. Strengthen capacity of CC and Provincial Accountability Working Group for improve the social accountabilities.

Project Approach: The project will use the social accountability tools for building the engagement of citizen and civil society with the sub-national level as below descriptions:

  • Social Audit Tool
  • Public forum for dialogue between the rights holders/citizens and duty bearers for improving the effective service delivery.
  • Citizen participation in the Community Investment Plan (CIP)
  • Citizen Report Card (CRC)
  • Community media
  • Spider Web
  • The community mobilization and participatory approach

The target beneficiaries are the poorest and most vulnerable families in the remote communities includes landless people, household headed by women, domestic violence families, handicapped people, orphan and vulnerable children. Key Stakeholder: Project will build good partnership with Provincial Accountabilities Working Group, Provincial Facilitating Team (PFT), District Facilitating Team (DFT) and chief of PLAU to support CCs in target communes and local leader of the project. District governors and District Counselor are also very important for us to build relationship, cooperation and get monitoring and supervision from them through regular reporting about the progresses and challenges of the project by monthly.

Safe Water and Sanitation

Based on result of baseline survey and Commune/district Investment Plan of two provinces (Pursat and Banteay Meanchey), especially poorest of poor families who living in remote villages where closely to Cambodia –Thai boarder are facing on lacking the portable drinking water and use water for agriculture, and lack sanitation in household & school. Affect from above problem, it can make the children, their siblings, parent and neighbor to sickness; drop out from school, squalor and enduring poverty.

The following project strategy will be use to address above problem in # selected Communes, 2 District in Provinces of Banteay Meanchey in order to empowered rural communities and poorest households are able to improve health condition and source of drinking water:

  1. Improve source of drinking water and use water to address the issue of deduction in time & labor used to collect water.
  2. Improve behavior change on hygiene and sanitation to address the issue of deduction in water born disease.

Project Approach:

  1. Empowerment and participatory approaches.
  2. Community resource mobilization approaches

These direct benefiting are including of landless people, children and youth living in difficult circumstance, household headed by women, people living with HIV/AID and disable people will be accessed to safe drinking water and sanitation. Moreover, the whole target population will also benefit directly from the empowerment of community based organization. Also, Poor women , school children and youth in the rural areas should be prioritized as this is the group with the least access to services and least likely to come together on their own to advocate for their needs with relevant authorities and other decision makers in their respective areas.

Disaster Risk Reduce (DRR)

he challenging in target commune of Bakan district in Pursat Province is limit capacity on DRR because community member and existing disaster management committee at both level of commune and district are not able to mitigate, prepare and respond to disaster and working with their target communities to manage risk derived from hazards and associated vulnerabilities. There is also a lack of capacity to deal with prolonged droughts and flash floods. Moreover, the organizing, planning, implementing and monitoring of community-based disaster management is poor. Such disasters can lead to rice shortages, damage to crops, death of livestock, damage to property, loss of income opportunities and road damage.

Our project aims to reduce the vulnerabilities and increase the coping capacities of rural Cambodian populations living in areas most affected by recurrent natural disasters. We focus on developing replicable strategies that protect the rights of children and young people during emergencies. Our work also contributes to national and international policies and practices.

To achieving above aims and constraint, our project will be implementing the below activities in 6 villages of 3 communes, 2 schools in Bakan district, Pursat Province.

  • Facilitate Hazard Vulnerability Capacity Assessment (HVCA) process.
  • Selection and implementation of DRR measures structural and non-structural in communities.
  • Supporting Village Association to submit DRR priorities and advocate for their inclusion in the Commune Investment Plan.
  • Construction of safety hills.
  • Raising and/or strengthening houses.
  • Raising poultry coops.
  • Improvements to water drainage systems.
  • Protection of water points.
  • Floating Vegetable Gardens.
  • Construction/rehabilitation of community ponds.
  • Distribution of water filters.
  • Establish drought resistant ag. demonstration plots.
  • Establish rice banks.
  • Mitigation measures in schools.

Project Approach and Tools:

  • Hazard Vulnerability Capacity Assessment (HVCA)
  • Community Resource Mobilization

TB/HIV through Community Direct Observation Treatment

Cambodia is one of the world highest prevalence of TB among 22 countries. At present, the TB incidence rate of all forms is estimated at 508/100,000 inhabitants, that of smear positive pulmonary form at 225/100,000 inhabitants, also among the highest in the western pacific region (WPR), the regional average is around 50.4/100,000. The estimated death rate is 95/100,000 population, it is also among the highest in the western pacific region (WPR).The number of new TB cases of all types was 36,123 in 2005, which included 21,001 cases of smear positive pulmonary TB. The HIV prevalence among TB patients increased drastically from 2.5% in 1995 to 11% in 2003. The impact of HIV/AIDS on TB will be enormous in the coming years for Cambodia.

In 2004, we are in the middle of drastically increased cases of co-infection. The prevalence of HIV among adults age 15-49 years old is 1.9%. In 2003, the National Tuberculosis Program reports conducted survey and revealed that 11% of TB patients are HIV positive. The destruction of a patient’s immune system by HIV/AIDS is a major cause of TB increase in Cambodia. The co-therapies given to the co-infected patients may jeopardize the outcomes of both treatments. It is foreseeable that the link between national TB and HIV/AIDS programs is very important.

Our Project Aim: Reduce risk of TB by empowering TB patient to access quality treatment services and the messages of TB knowledge through community DOT strategy with TB/HIV collaborative activities for vulnerable people in remote areas.

Project Objective:

  • The case detection rate will be increased 70% and maintain cure rate of more than 85% in the target areas (Thmar Pourk OD) through increasing access and improving quality and delivery of C-DOT.
  • Improve the life expectancy and cure rates of co-infected TB and HIV-AIDS patients in target area of Thmar Pouk OD through effective partnership of home-care teams, CDOT and Health Worker.

Program Approach

The PK supports each other; combined, they express the nature of the overall PK development philosophy. The area approach provides obvious opportunities and challenges for people of all wealth rankings to gain advantages from public interventions, and for the poorest and vulnerable groups, who are usually excluded, to receive specific assistance. This builds up a working-together atmosphere within rural communities for a greater range of voices to be heard. It also entails area support to local authorities, which reflects cooperation of the entire geographical scope and not just with PK.

  1. Increased household capital asset and income will be achieved by supporting the diversified livelihood options to poorest households increasing the effective access to market for the natural production of the poorest households and raising awareness of nutrition food preparation and personal hygiene and sanitation. The project will use the empowerment and participatory approaches during project implementation to efficiently and effectively meet these goals. Empowerment activities strive to enable individuals, poorest households and communities to recognize that they hold the ability and power to actively change and improve their own lives. The participatory approach encourages people to be actively involved in all aspects of their development, such as assessment and planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. This requires motivating them to contribute as much and in as many ways as possible, whether it is ideas and leadership, time and labour or materials and money. Communities will be assisted and trained to organize them¬selves, to identify their own needs, rights, problems and risks and to find their own solutions. Poorest families and most vulnerable groups in each village will be identified through PRA wealth ranking and motivated by the project staff to identify their needs, make household development plans and implement them. Capacity for self-assessment will be improved through participatory planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation at every stage of the development process. Village Organizations and the poorest families will conduct an annual appraisal of their capacity (see impact indicators), and, based on the result of these appraisals, will receive further capacity building until their self-assessed graduation. The projects will ensure that at least 50% of participants will be women in all capacity building activities for Community Based Organization and the poorest families.
  2. The strategy to strengthen social capital will support the process to form and strengthen the capacity of civil society organizations, including community-based organizations, farmer associations, producer groups, farmer field schools and business associations, to address issues of equal participation, community mobilization, community sodality, social networking and sustainable development. The project will also support cross cutting issues in the social protection initiative, such as DRR, HIV/AIDS and gender, and support commune forum for dialogue between the rights holders and duty bearers. This project will use different approaches to meet these goals. The community based approach is able to promote peace, reconciliation, stability and solidarity within communities. Community members are encouraged to build on their own assets, structures and resources, enabling them to address development challenges and fulfil their development plans. The project staff works right in the focus communities on a day-to-day basis as motivators and facilitators, and provides capacity building to community members on their rights and responsibilities in the entire development program within their communities. The project will also build and strengthen community organizations and networks where they exist, and to link them with outside resources and government services. Moreover, the project will endeavour to enhance accountability and transparency among community organizations, including the Commune Council, to build the trust of population within their communities. The rights-based approach (RBA) can assist us and Community Based Organization to facilitate community solidarity on rights issues and advocate with authorities to solve rights conflicts and to demand rights for basic government services, such as health, education, security, infrastructure and agricultural extension services. Major rights issues for this action is based on the actual situation and issues chosen by communities. They include people’s right for land (government’s obligation to solve land right disputes, provide land right security), while building the capacity of the community to advocate and network on its own behalf.
  3. Support structure at the commune level: These activities will focus on capacity building on transparency and accountabilities to re-build the trust of people in their institutions, support them to build networks and enhance people’s understanding of their rights and responsibilities within all aspects of development activities. The strategy will be to use the empowerment and capacity building approach and right based approach in the because it can help us in build people’s capacity and confidence, both as individuals and as participating members of groups and communities to achieve results for themselves.
  4. The results-based approach focuses on the impact of project activities on the target people, communities or structures rather than simply on the activities themselves. Results are measured qualitatively and quantitatively with and by the people themselves, who learn through experience how to evaluate on their own. Focusing on results is instructional for the Program as well, as approach and activities are continually revised for increased effectiveness.
  5. Gender Rights-based project: The action’s aim to improve the lives of women must be viewed within an overall strategy for promoting gender equality because without progress in that larger arena, any gains made by individual women are not likely to be sustainable nor will they significantly influence other individuals. Partner Agencies recognize that women-specific projects and involving more women as beneficiaries will not work to rectify gender disparities if questions of power are not addressed and if women are not involved in the decision-making process as equal partners. Specifically, staff will work at challenging the ideas behind accepted norms, addressing the way women and their roles are perceived and labelled. This so-called “invisible power” can be a powerful tool for entrenching beliefs and stereotypes, co-opting women at times to believe that their exclusion and exploitation is natural and right. Empowerment strategies will focus on processes that facilitate and support individual and collective empowerment. Measures to support girls/women’s self-awareness, problem analysis and solving, political consciousness, power analysis, self-assertiveness, and leadership will be complimented with measures to support increased awareness and knowledge among men of gender.
  6. Holistic skills training: The Project takes a comprehensive and holistic approach to vocational skills training: experience has shown that it is not sufficient to simply provide technical skills to a marginalized and at-risk population. Effort must also be made to assist the beneficiaries in finding employment and applying the skills gained through participation in the project; and also to helping to create a general social and political environment conducive to their healthy participation in society. Thus the VST component includes an emphasis on Life skills, both education and for shaping specific content. Further, there is considerable follow-up of VST graduates after training.
  7. Advocacy: Advocacy activities in this Project occur on different levels (village to national level, individual and collective) and take the form of raising awareness, providing information that enables referrals, educating people about rights and laws, promoting enforcement of existing legislation. Collaboration with other organizations’ on advocacy will be the main approach. Through networking and partnerships with RGC departments (particularly: DoWA, DoSVY, DoL, DoE, Police, Counter-trafficking Unit) and NGO’s the project will contribute to the general improvement and efficiency of services, information, and interventions relating to trafficking, child labour, and domestic violence. In addition effort will be made to strengthen formal linkages between the various partners through more transparent communication, facilitating community-based group participation in formal government structures and mechanisms such as VDC meetings and Commune Council meetings.

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